ABOUT ownership of land
Logical relations are the most basic and most overlooked phenomenon we
know. Nothing of which we can talk rationally can exist, can be identified
or referred to, except through its logical relations to other things.
Logic is necessary relations between different factors, and factors are
what exist by the force of those relations. The decisive thing about logical
relations is that they can not be reasoned. Nevertheless, they do constitute
conditions necessary for any description, because they can not be denied
without rejecting the factors of the relations. Persons are, for example,
totally different from their bodies. Persons can go for a walk and they
can make decisions. Bodies can not do that. Nevertheless, we can not refer
to persons without referring to their bodies. If we say: here we have
a person, but he or she unfortunately is lacking a body, it does not make
sense. Persons are totally different from the concrete situations they
are in. Nevertheless, we can not refer to persons without referring to
the situations they are in. If we say: here we have a person, but this
person has never been in a concrete situation, it does not make sense.
Language is totally different from reality. Nevertheless, we have to perceive
language as something that can be used to talk about reality. If we say:
here we have a language, but this language can not be used to talk about
reality, it does not make sense. Logical relations have decisive significance.
The absence of logical relations would mean that nothing could be of decisive
significance: as long as one does not contradict oneself nor is inconsistent
with facts, any point of view may be as good as the next, one can say
and mean anything. Logical relations are conditions for talking rationally
together. The part of the world we can talk rationally about, can thus
be defined as the part we can talk about using logical relations. But
we do not have any reason to assume that the world is identical with what
we can talk rationally about. Logic is something more basic than language.
Logical relations are what makes language a language and what assigns
meaning to words. Therefore, it is impossible to learn a language, without
learning to respect logical relations. But as we grow up and learn to
master language, logical relations are not present on a conscious level.
If we are conscious of logical relations, it is possible for us to decide
whether something is right or wrong and not to allow ourselves to be ruled
by for example habitual conceptions and subjective opinions.
A person can be described in an infinite number of ways. None of these
descriptions can be completely adequate. We therefore can not describe
precisely what a person is. Whichever way we describe a person, we do
however have the possibility to point out necessary relations between
persons and other factors. We have to respect these relations and factors
in order not to contradict ourselves and in order to be able to talk about
persons in a meaningful way. One necessary relation is the logical relation
between persons and bodies. It makes no sense to refer to a person without
referring to a body. If we for example say: here we have a person, but
he or she does not have a body, it does not make sense. Furthermore, there
are necessary relations between persons and the rights of persons. Persons
should be treated as persons and therefore as having rights. If we deny
this assertion it goes wrong: here is a person, but this person should
not be treated as a person, or: here is a person, who should be treated
as a person, but not as having rights. Therefore we can only talk about
persons in a way that makes sense if we know that persons have rights.
Concentrations of power
Concentrations of power do not always respect the rights of persons. If
one denies this fact one gets: concentrations of power always respect
the rights of persons. This does not correspond with our experiences.
Concentrations of power characterize our society. Concentrations of power
force persons to concentrate on participating in competition and power
games, in order to create a social position for themselves. Concurrently
with the concentrations of power dominating our conscious mind and being
decisive to our situations, the significance of our fellow humans diminishes.
And our own significance becomes the significance we have for concentrations
of power, the growth of concentrations of power, and the conflicts of
concentrations of power.
It is clear that persons should be consciously aware of the rights of
persons and therefore must seek to organize the smallest concentrations
of power possible.
Ownership of land
It is a habitual conception that ownership of land is acceptable.
Most societies are characterized by the convention of ownership. But if
we claim the ownership of land, we also say that we have more right to
parts of the surface of the earth, than other persons have
We know that persons should be treated as persons and therefore as having
rights. If we say here is a person who has rights, but this person has
no right to stay on the surface of the earth, it does not make sense.
If one does not accept that persons have the right to stay on the surface
of the earth, it makes no sense to talk about rights at all. If we try
to defend ownership of land using language in a rational way it goes wrong.
The only way of defending this ownership is by the use of power and force.
No persons have more right to land than other persons, but concentrations
of power use force to maintain the illusion of ownership of land.
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